Black powder is a significant problem in gas transmission pipelines. It reduces pipeline capacities, increases costs, and damages expensive downstream equipment. In this blog we look at how oil and gas companies can mitigate these problems with the help of an experienced filtration partner.
Well, just to confuse matters at the very beginning, it's not always black!
The powder is a combination of:
Depending on the specification of the gas being transported, the fraction of different corrosion products can vary resulting in a colour variation from black to beige.
Black powder within a natural gas transmission pipeline.
Black powder can be a mixture of any of the following:
Natural gas transmission pipelines will suffer from some degree of accumulation of this black powder in their lifetime. Routine pigging, maintenance, and the use of internal coatings can help to reduce the incidence of particle accumulation but it will never eliminate it.Why is it a problem?
The natural gas eventually ends up at compressors, either reciprocating or turbine. These can be catastrophically damaged by the particulates re-entrained from the floor of the distribution pipe into the gas stream. Unfortunately, this is inevitable as the schematic below shows:
While reciprocating compressors can often cope with particulate around 1 micron, turbine compressors are far more sensitive. These compressors need to be protected by removing the particulate.
The filtration solution for your gas transmission pipelines
An experienced filter manufacturer can help you overcome this problem.
The most common and low-risk method of removal is through dead-end filtration. This provides a guaranteed removal rate independent of gas velocities, unlike separation technologies such as cyclones.
The wide range of particulate sizes present in the gas stream means that designing a filter that both protects the compressor and provides a suitable service life is a big challenge.
Manufacturers of filters for this application often quote efficiencies at 0.3 micron. Is this really that relevant in an application where challenge levels and particulate micron ratings vary so much?
At Amazon Filters, we believe there is a better way.
We worked with the specification of a global oil and gas major. This was using the typical particulate loading and micron sizes. This ensured that we not only conformed to their operational requirements but also provided ‘real world’ performance data for use by other potential customers. The table below details the efficiency of both the fine and course grade contour gas filter when challenged with 3 different particle concentrations:
The results show how contour gas provides consistent protection to compressors even in the worst case scenario of up to 30g/MMscf. To mimic 'real world' conditions efficiencies were measured for a particle size range of 0.2 to 3.0 microns, not just 0.3.
The fine G0X grade is ideal for the protection of turbine compressors while the course G0M Grade will provide a cost-effective solution for reciprocating compressors.
Contour gas has been designed with a graded density melt blown structure that optimizes the dirt holding capacity in the more open outer layers, while providing a high efficiency zone downstream to capture sub-micron particulate.
This all assumes that the gas entering the distribution network is conditioned correctly with respect to the removal of liquids.
What else can effect your pipelines?
Health and safety is extremely important aspect of this application. Specifically, the process of cartridge changeout.
When one of the corrosion bi-products, iron sulfide, is exposed to oxygen (as will happen when the filter housing is opened) it converts to iron oxide in a exothermic reaction that can result in auto-ignition of the black powder, the filter, or both. The results are plain to see in the short video clip below!